Anthropology and Human Genetics

Breadcrumb Navigation


Primate Genomics

201720162015 | 2014 | 2013 | 2012 | 2011 | 2010 | 2009 | 2008 | 2007 | 2006 | 2005 | 2004 | 2003 | 2002 | 2001


Ziegenhain, C., Vieth, B., Parekh, S., Reinius, B., Guillaumet-Adkins, A., Smets, M., Leonhardt, H., Heyn, H., Hellmann, I. and Enard, W. (2017) Comparative Analysis of Single-Cell RNA Sequencing Methods. Molecular Cell 65 (4): 631–43.e4.

Schreck, C., Istvanffy, R., Ziegenhain, C., Sippenauer, T., Ruf, F., Henkel, L., Gartner, F., Vieth, B., Florian, M.C., Mende, N., Taubenberger, A., Prendergast, A., Wagner, A., Pagel, C., Grziwok, S., Gotze, K.S., Guck, J., Dean, D.C., Massberg, S., Essers, M., Waskow, C., Geiger, H., Schiemann, M., Peschel, C., Enard, W., and Oostendorp, R.A. (2017). Niche WNT5A regulates the actin cytoskeleton during regeneration of hematopoietic stem cells. The Journal of experimental medicine 214, 165-181.


Chen, Y.C., Kuo, H.Y., Bornschein, U., Takahashi, H., Chen, S.Y., Lu, K.M., Yang, H.Y., Chen, G.M., Lin, J.R., Lee, Y.H., Chou, Y.C., Cheng, S.J., Chien, C.T., Enard, W., Hevers, W., Paabo, S., Graybiel, A.M., and Liu, F.C. (2016). Foxp2 controls synaptic wiring of corticostriatal circuits and vocal communication by opposing Mef2c. Nature neuroscience 19, 1513-1522.

Li, Q., Guo, S., Jiang, X., Bryk, J., Naumann, R., Enard, W., Tomita, M., Sugimoto, M., Khaitovich, P., and Paabo, S. (2016). Mice carrying a human GLUD2 gene recapitulate aspects of human transcriptome and metabolome development. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 113, 5358-5363.

Huber, C.D., DeGiorgio, M., Hellmann, I., and Nielsen, R. (2016). Detecting recent selective sweeps while controlling for mutation rate and background selection. Molecular ecology 25, 142-156.

Nissen, J.D., Lykke, K., Bryk, J., Stridh, M.H., Zaganas, I., Skytt, D.M., Schousboe, A., Bak, L.K., Enard, W., Paabo, S., and Waagepetersen, H.S. (2016). Expression of the human isoform of glutamate dehydrogenase, hGDH2, augments TCA cycle capacity and oxidative metabolism of glutamate during glucose deprivation in astrocytes. Glia 1098-1136. doi:10.1002/glia.23105.

Ebinger, S.*, Ozdemir, E.Z.*, Ziegenhain, C.*, Tiedt, S.*, Castro Alves, C.*, Grunert, M., Dworzak, M., Lutz, C., Turati, V.A., Enver, T., Horny, H.P., Sotlar, K., Parekh, S., Spiekermann, K., Hiddemann, W., Schepers, A., Polzer, B., Kirsch, S., Hoffmann, M., Knapp, B., Hasenauer, J., Pfeifer, H., Panzer-Grumayer, R., Enard, W., Gires, O., and Jeremias, I. (2016). Characterization of Rare, Dormant, and Therapy-Resistant Cells in Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia. Cancer cell 30, 849-862.

Enard, W. (2016). The Molecular Basis of Human Brain Evolution. Current Biology Volume 20, Issue 20: pR1109–R1117.

Ziegenhain, C., Parekh, S., Vieth, B., Smets, M., Leonhardt, H., Hellmann, I., and Enard, W. (2016). Comparative analysis of single-cell RNA-sequencing methods.

Parekh, S., Ziegenhain, C., Vieth, B., Enard, W., and Hellmann, I. (2016). The impact of amplification on differential expression analyses by RNA-seq. Scientific Reports 6, Article number:25533. 

DeGiorgio, M., Huber, C.D., Hubisz, M.J., Hellmann, I., and Nielsen, R. (2016). SWEEPFINDER2: Increased sensitivity, robustness, and flexibility. Bioinformatics. 


Humphrey, S.J., Azimifar, S.B., and Mann, M. (2015). High-throughput phosphoproteomics reveals in vivo insulin signaling dynamics. Nature Biotechnology 33, 990-995.

Ohnuki, M., and Takahashi, K. (2015). Present and future challenges of induced pluripotent stem cells. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 370, 20140367.

Hammerschmidt, K., Schreiweis, C., Minge, C., Paabo, S., Fischer, J., and Enard, W. (2015). A humanized version of Foxp2 does not affect ultrasonic vocalization in adult mice. Genes, brain, and behavior 14, 583-590.

Enard, W. (2015). Human evolution: enhancing the brain. Curr Biol 25, R421-423.

Huber, C., DeGiogio, M., Hellmann, I. and Nielsen, R. (2015). Detecting recent selective sweeps while controlling for mutation rate and background selection. Mol Ecol.



Enard, W. (2014). Mouse models of human evolution. Curr Opin Genet Dev 29C, 75-80. doi: 10.1016/j.gde.2014.08.008

Schreiweis, C., Bornschein, U., Burguiere, E., Kerimoglu, C., Schreiter, S., Dannemann, M., Goyal, S., Rea, E., French, C.A., Puliyadi, R., Groszer, M., Fisher, S.E., Mundry, R., Winter, C., Hevers, W., Paabo, S., Enard*, W., and Graybiel*, A.M. (2014). Humanized Foxp2 accelerates learning by enhancing transitions from declarative to procedural performance. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA.

Huber, C.D., Nordborg, M., Hermisson, J., and Hellmann, I. (2014). Keeping it Local: Evidence for Positive Selection in Swedish Arabidopsis thaliana. Molecular biology and evolution.

Enard, W. (2014). Comparative genomics of brain size evolution. Front. Hum. Neursci. 8:345, doi:10.3389/fnhum.2014.00345.

Wunderlich, S., Kircher, M., Vieth, B., Haase, A., Merkert, S., Beier, J., Göhring, G., Glage, S., Schambach, A., Curnow, WE.C., Pääbo, S., Martin, U., and Enard, W. (2014). Primate iPS cells as tools for evolutionary analyses. Stem Cell Research,

Prufer, K., Racimo, F., Patterson, N., Jay, F., Sankararaman, S., Sawyer, S., Heinze, A., Renaud, G., Sudmant, P.H., de Filippo, C., Li, H., Mallick, S., Dannemann, M., Fu, Q., Kircher, M., Kuhlwilm, M., Lachmann, M., Meyer, M., Ongyerth, M., Siebauer, M., Theunert, C., Tandon, A., Moorjani, P., Pickrell, J., Mullikin, J.C., Vohr, S.H., Green, R.E., Hellmann, I., Johnson, P.L., Blanche, H., Cann, H., Kitzman, J.O., Shendure, J., Eichler, E.E., Lein, E.S., Bakken, T.E., Golovanova, L.V., Doronichev, V.B., Shunkov, M.V., Derevianko, A.P., Viola, B., Slatkin, M., Reich, D., Kelso, J., and Paabo, S. (2014). The complete genome sequence of a Neanderthal from the Altai Mountains. Nature 505, 43-49. doi: 10.1038/nature12886


Long, Q., Rabanal, F.A., Meng, D., Huber, C.D., Farlow, A., Platzer, A., Zhang, Q., Vilhjalmsson, B.J., Korte, A., Nizhynska, V., Voronin, V., Korte, P., Sedman, L., Mandakova, T., Lysak, M.A., Seren, U., Hellmann, I., and Nordborg, M. (2013). Massive genomic variation and strong selection in Arabidopsis thaliana lines from Sweden. Nat Genet 45, 884-890. doi: 10.1038/ng.2678


Clovis, Y.M., Enard, W., Marinaro, F., Huttner, W.B., and De Pietri Tonelli, D. (2012). Convergent repression of Foxp2 3'UTR by miR-9 and miR-132 in embryonic mouse neocortex: implications for radial migration of neurons. Development 139, 3332-3342,

Enard, W. (2012). Functional primate genomics--leveraging the medical potential. J Mol Med (Berl) 90, 471-480,

Prufer, K., Munch, K., Hellmann, I., Akagi, K., Miller, J.R., Walenz, B., Koren, S., Sutton, G., Kodira, C., Winer, R., Knight, J.R., Mullikin, J.C., Meader, S.J., Ponting, C.P., Lunter, G., Higashino, S., Hobolth, A., Dutheil, J., Karakoc, E., Alkan, C., Sajjadian, S., Catacchio, C.R., Ventura, M., Marques-Bonet, T., Eichler, E.E., Andre, C., Atencia, R., Mugisha, L., Junhold, J., Patterson, N, Siebauer, M., Good, J.M., Fischer, A., Ptak, S.E., Lachmann, M., Symer, D.E., Mailund, T., Schierup, M.H., Andres, A.M., Kelso, J., and Paabo, S. (2012). The bonobo genome compared with the chimpanzee and human genomes. Nature 486, 527-531,

Fietz, S.A., Lachmann, R., Brandl, H., Kircher, M., Samusik, N., Schroder, R., Lakshmanaperumal, N., Henry, I., Vogt, J., Riehn, A., Distler, W., Nitsch, R., Enard, W., Paabo, S., and Huttner, W.B. (2012). Transcriptomes of germinal zones of human and mouse fetal neocortex suggest a role of extracellular matrix in progenitor self-renewal. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109, 11836-11841,

Maricic, T., Gunther, V., Georgiev, O., Gehre, S., Curlin, M., Schreiweis, C., Naumann, R., Burbano, H.A., Meyer, M., Lazuela-Fox, C., de la Rasilla, M., Rosas, A., Gajovic, S., Kelso, J., Enard, W., Schaffner, W., and Paabo, S. (2012). A Recent Evolutionary Change Affects a Regulatory Element in the Human FOXP2 Gene. Mol Biol Evol,


Lohmueller, K.E., Albrechtsen, A., Li, Y., Kim, S.Y., Korneliussen, T., Vinckenbosch, N., Tian, G., Huerta-Sanchez, E., Feder, A.F., Grarup, N., Jorgensen, T., Jiang, T., Witte, D.R., Sandbaek, A., Hellmann, I., Lauritzen T., Hansen, T., Pedersen, O., Wang, J., and  Nielsen, R. (2011). Natural selection affects multiple aspects of genetic variation at putatively neutral sites across the human genome. PLoS Genet 7, e1002326,

Enard, W. (2011). FOXP2 and the role of cortico-basal ganglia circuits in speech and language evolution. Curr Opin Neurobiol 21, 415-424,

Reimers-Kipping, S., Hevers, W., Paabo, S., and Enard, W. (2011). Humanized Foxp2 specifically affects cortico-basal ganglia circuits. Neuroscience 175, 75-84,

Johnson, P.L., and Hellmann, I. (2011). Mutation rate distribution inferred from coincident SNPs and coincident substitutions. Genome Biol Evol 3, 842-850,


Pulvers, J.N., Bryk, J., Fish, J.L., Wilsch-Brauninger, M., Arai, Y., Schreier, D.,  Naumann, R., Helppi, J., Habermann, B., Vogt, J., Nitsch, R., Toth, A., Enard, W., Paabo, S., and Huttner, W.B. (2010). Mutations in mouse Aspm (abnormal spindle-like microcephaly associated) cause not only microcephaly but also major defects in the germline. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107, 16595-16600,

Li, Y., Vinckenbosch, N., Tian, G., Huerta-Sanchez, E., Jiang, T., Jiang, H., Albrechtsen, A., Andersen, G., Cao, H., Korneliussen, T., Grarup, N., Guo, Y., Hellmann, I., Jin, X., Li, Q., Liu, J., Liu, X., Sparso, T., Tang, M., Wu, H., Wu, R., Yu, C., Zheng, H., Astrup, A., Bolund, L., Holmkvist, J., Jorgensen, T., Kristiansen, K., Schmitz, O., Schwartz, T.W., Zhang, X., Li, R., Yang, H., Wang, J., Hansen, T., Pedersen, O., Nielsen, R., and Wang, J. (2010). Resequencing of 200 human exomes identifies an excess of low-frequency non-synonymous coding variants. Nat Genet 42, 969-972,

Pool, J.E., Hellmann, I., Jensen, J.D., and Nielsen, R. (2010). Population genetic inference from genomic sequence variation. Genome Res 20, 291-300,

Staubert, C., Boselt, I., Bohnekamp, J., Rompler, H., Enard, W., and Schoneberg, T. (2010). Structural and functional evolution of the trace amine-associated receptors TAAR3, TAAR4 and TAAR5 in primates. PLoS One 5, e11133,


Xia, Q., Guo, Y., Zhang, Z., Li, D., Xuan, Z., Li, Z.,  Xia, Q., Guo, Y., Zhang, Z., Li, D., Xuan, Z., Li, Z., Dai, F., Li, Y., Cheng, D., Li, R., Cheng, T., Jiang, T., Becquet, C., Xu, X., Liu, C., Zha, X., Fan, W., Lin, Y., Shen, Y., Jiang, L., Jensen, J., Hellmann, I., Tang, S., Zhao, P., Xu, H., Yu, C., Zhang, G., Li, J., Cao, J., Liu, S., He, N., Zhou, Y., Liu, H., Zhao, J., Ye, C., Du, Z., Pan, G., Zhao, A., Shao, H., Zeng, W., Wu, P., Li, C., Pan, M., Li, J., Yin, X., Li, D., Wang, J., Zheng, H., Wang, W., Zhang, X., Li, S., Yang, H., Lu, C., Nielsen, R., Zhou, Z., Wang, J., Xiang, Z., Wang, J. (2009). Complete resequencing of 40 genomes reveals domestication events and genes in silkworm (Bombyx). Science 326, 433-436,

Ptak, S.E., Enard, W., Wiebe, V., Hellmann, I., Krause, J., Lachmann, M., and Paabo, S. (2009). Linkage disequilibrium extends across putative selected sites in FOXP2. Mol Biol Evol 26, 2181-2184,

Dannemann, M., Lorenc, A., Hellmann, I., Khaitovich, P., and Lachmann, M. (2009). The effects of probe binding affinity differences on gene expression measurements and how to deal with them. Bioinformatics 25, 2772-2779,

Enard, W., Gehre, S., Hammerschmidt, K., Hölter, S.M., Blass, T., Somel, M., Brückner, M.K., Schreiweis, C., Winter, C., Sohr, R., Becker, L., Wiebe, V., Nickel, B., Giger, T., Müller, U., Groszer, M., Adler, T., Aguilar, A., Bolle, I., Calzada-Wack, J., Dalke, C., Ehrhardt, N., Favor, J., Fuchs, H., Gailus-Durner, V., Hans, W., Hölzlwimmer, G., Javaheri, A., Kalaydjiev, S., Kallnik, M., Kling, E., Kunder, S., Moßbrugger, I., Naton, B., Racz, I., Rathkolb, B., Rozman, J., Schrewe, A., Busch, D.H., Graw, J., Ivandic, B., Klingenspor, M., Klopstock, T., Ollert, M., Quintanilla-Martinez, L., Schulz, H., Wolf, E., Wurst, W., Zimmer, A., Fisher, S.E., Morgenstern, R., Arendt, T., Hrabé de Angelis, M., Fischer, J., Schwarz, J., and Pääbo, S. (2009). A humanized version of Foxp2 affects cortico-basal ganglia circuits in mice. Cell 137, 961-971,

Nielsen, R., Hubisz, M.J., Hellmann, I., Torgerson, D., Andres, A.M., Albrechtsen, A., Gutenkunst, R., Adams, M.D., Cargill, M., Boyko, A., Indap, A., Bustamante, C.D., and Clark, A.G. (2009). Darwinian and demographic forces affecting human protein coding genes. Genome Res 19, 838-849,


Wang, J., Wang, W., Li, R., Li, Y., Tian, G., Goodman, L., Fan, W., Zhang, J., Li, J., Zhang, J., Guo, Y., Feng, B., Li, H., Lu, Y., Fang, X., Liang, H., Du, Z., Li, D., Zhao, Y., Hu, Y., Yang, Z., Zheng, H., Hellmann, I., Inouye, M., Pool, J., Yi, X., Zhao, J., Duan, J., Zhou, Y., Qin, J., Ma, L., Li, G., Yang, Z., Zhang, G., Yang, B., Yu, C., Liang, F., Li, W., Li, S., Li, D., Ni, P., Ruan, J., Li, Q., Zhu, H., Liu, D., Lu, Z., Li, N., Guo, G., Zhang, J., Ye, J., Fang, L., Hao, Q., Chen, Q., Liang, Y., Su, Y., San, A., Ping, C., Yang, S., Chen, F., Li, L., Zhou, K., Zheng, H., Ren, Y., Yang, L., Gao, Y., Yang, G., Li, Z., Feng, X., Kristiansen, K., Wong, G.K., Nielsen, R., Durbin, R., Bolund, L., Zhang, X., Li, S., Yang, H., and Wang J. (2008). The diploid genome sequence of an Asian individual. Nature 456, 60-65,

Groszer, M., Keays, D.A., Deacon, R.M., de Bono, J.P., Prasad-Mulcare, S., Gaub, S., Baum, M.G., French, C.A., Nicod, J., Coventry, J.A., Enard, W., Fray, M., Brown, S.D., Nolan, P.M., Pääbo, S., Channon, K.M., Costa, R.M., Eilers, J., Ehret, G., Rawlins, J.N., and Fisher, S.E. (2008). Impaired synaptic plasticity and motor learning in mice with a point mutation implicated in human speech deficits. Curr Biol 18, 354-362,

Hellmann, I., Mang, Y., Gu, Z., Li, P., de la Vega, F.M., Clark, A.G., and Nielsen, R. (2008). Population genetic analysis of shotgun assemblies of genomic sequences from multiple individuals. Genome Res 18, 1020-1029,


Krause, J., Lalueza-Fox, C., Orlando, L., Enard, W., Green, R.E., Burbano, H.A., Hublin, J.J., Hänni, C., Fortea, J., de la Rasilla, M., Bertranpetit, J., Rosas, A., and Paabo, S. (2007). The derived FOXP2 variant of modern humans was shared with Neandertals. Curr Biol 17, 1908-1912,

Nielsen, R., Hellmann, I., Hubisz, M., Bustamante, C., and Clark, A.G. (2007). Recent and ongoing selection in the human genome. Nat Rev Genet 8, 857-868,

Francks, C., Maegawa, S., Lauren, J., Abrahams, B.S., Velayos-Baeza, A., Medland, S.E., Colella, S., Groszer, M., McAuley, E.Z., Caffrey, T.M., Timmusk, T., Pruunsild, P., Koppel, I., Lind, P.A., Matsumoto-Itaba, N., Nicod, J., Xiong, L., Joober, R., Enard, W., Krinsky, B., Nanba, E., Richardson, A.J., Riley, B.P., Martin, N.G., Strittmatter, S.M., Möller, H.J., Rujescu, D., St Clair, D., Muglia, P., Roos, J.L., Fisher, S.E., Wade-Martins, R., Rouleau, G.A., Stein, J.F., Karayiorgou, M., Geschwind, D.H., Ragoussis, J., Kendler, K.S., Airaksinen, M.S., Oshimura, M., DeLisi, L.E., and Monaco, A.P. (2007). LRRTM1 on chromosome 2p12 is a maternally suppressed gene that is associated paternally with handedness and schizophrenia. Mol Psychiatry 12, 1129-1139, 1057,

Timpson, N., Heron, J., Smith, G.D., and Enard, W. (2007). Comment on papers by Evans et al. and Mekel-Bobrov et al. on Evidence for Positive Selection of MCPH1 and ASPM. Science 317, 1036; author reply 1036,

Weber, M., Hellmann, I., Stadler, M.B., Ramos, L., Paabo, S., Rebhan, M., and Schubeler, D. (2007). Distribution, silencing potential and evolutionary impact of promoter DNA methylation in the human genome. Nat Genet 39, 457-466,

Prufer, K., Muetzel, B., Do, H.H., Weiss, G., Khaitovich, P., Rahm, E., Paabo, S., Lachmann, M., Enard, W. (2007). FUNC: a package for detecting significant associations between gene sets and ontological annotations. BMC Bioinformatics 8, 41,


Khaitovich, P., Enard, W., Lachmann, M., and Paabo, S. (2006a). Evolution of primate gene expression. Nat Rev Genet 7, 693-702,

Khaitovich, P., Tang, K., Franz, H., Kelso, J., Hellmann, I., Enard, W., Lachmann, M., and Paabo, S. (2006b). Positive selection on gene expression in the human brain. Curr Biol 16, R356-358,

Goidts, V., Armengol, L., Schempp, W., Conroy, J., Nowak, N., Muller, S., Cooper, D.N., Estivill, X., Enard, W., Szamalek, J.M., Hameister, H., and Kehrer-Sawatzki, H. (2006). Identification of large-scale human-specific copy number differences by inter-species array comparative genomic hybridization. Hum Genet 119, 185-198,

Fish, J.L., Kosodo, Y., Enard, W., Paabo, S., and Huttner, W.B. (2006). Aspm specifically maintains symmetric proliferative divisions of neuroepithelial cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103, 10438-10443,


Khaitovich, P., Hellmann, I., Enard, W., Nowick, K., Leinweber, M., Franz, H., Weiss, G, Lachmann, M., and Paabo, S. (2005). Parallel patterns of evolution in the genomes and transcriptomes of humans and chimpanzees. Science 309, 1850-1854,

Hellmann, I., Prufer, K., Ji, H., Zody, M.C., Paabo, S., and Ptak, S.E. (2005). Why do human diversity levels vary at a megabase scale? Genome Res 15, 1222-1231,

Woods, C.G., Bond, J., and Enard, W. (2005). Autosomal recessive primary microcephaly (MCPH): a review of clinical, molecular, and evolutionary findings. Am J Hum Genet 76, 717-728,

Heissig, F., Krause, J., Bryk, J., Khaitovich, P., Enard, W., and Paabo, S. (2005). Functional analysis of human and chimpanzee promoters. Genome Biol 6, R57,


Watanabe, H., Fujiyama, A., Hattori, M., Taylor, T.D., Toyoda, A., Kuroki, Y., Noguchi, H., BenKahla, A., Lehrach, H., Sudbrak, R., Kube, M., Taenzer, S., Galgoczy, P., Platzer, M., Scharfe, M., Nordsiek, G., Blöcker, H., Hellmann, I., Khaitovich, P., Pääbo, S., Reinhardt, R., Zheng, H.J., Zhang, X.L., Zhu, G.F., Wang, B.F., Fu, G., Ren, S.X., Zhao, G.P., Chen, Z., Lee, Y.S., Cheong, J.E., Choi, S.H., Wu, K.M., Liu, T.T., Hsiao, K.J., Tsai, S.F., Kim, C.G., OOta, S., Kitano, T., Kohara, Y., Saitou, N., Park, H.S., Wang, S.Y., Yaspo, M.L., and Sakaki, Y. (2004). DNA sequence and comparative analysis of chimpanzee chromosome 22. Nature 429, 382-388,

Khaitovich, P., Weiss, G., Lachmann, M., Hellmann, I., Enard, W., Muetzel, B., Wirkner, U, Ansorge, W., and Paabo, S. (2004a). A neutral model of transcriptome evolution. PLoS Biol 2, E132,

Enard, W., Fassbender, A., Model, F., Adorjan, P., Paabo, S., and Olek, A. (2004). Differences in DNA methylation patterns between humans and chimpanzees. Curr Biol 14, R148-149,

Khaitovich, P., Muetzel, B., She, X., Lachmann, M., Hellmann, I., Dietzsch, J., Steigele, S., Do, H.H., Weiss, G., Enard, W., Heissig, F., Arendt, T., Nieselt-Struwe, K., Eichler, E.E., and Paabo, S. (2004b). Regional patterns of gene expression in human and chimpanzee brains. Genome Res 14, 1462-1473,

Enard, W., and Paabo, S. (2004). Comparative primate genomics. Annu Rev Genomics Hum Genet 5, 351-378,


Hellmann, I., Zollner, S., Enard, W., Ebersberger, I., Nickel, B., and Paabo, S. (2003a). Selection on human genes as revealed by comparisons to chimpanzee cDNA. Genome Res 13, 831-837,

Hellmann, I., Ebersberger, I., Ptak, S.E., Paabo, S., and Przeworski, M. (2003b). A neutral explanation for the correlation of diversity with recombination rates in humans. Am J Hum Genet 72, 1527-1535,


Enard, W., Przeworski, M., Fisher, S.E., Lai, C.S., Wiebe, V., Kitano, T., Monaco, A.P., and Paabo, S. (2002a). Molecular evolution of FOXP2, a gene involved in speech and language. Nature 418, 869-872,

Enard, W., Khaitovich, P., Klose, J., Zollner, S., Heissig, F., Giavalisco, P., Nieselt-Struwe, K., Muchmore, E., Varki, A., Ravid, R., Doxiadis, G.M., Bontrop, R.E., and Paabo, S. (2002b). Intra- and interspecific variation in primate gene expression patterns. Science 296, 340-343,


Straube, A., Enard, W., Berner, A., Wedlich-Soldner, R., Kahmann, R., and Steinberg, G. (2001). A split motor domain in a cytoplasmic dynein. Embo J 20, 5091-5100,